Car tire is a cover made of rubber, fabric, and metal, which is installed on the wheel rim. The tire consists of a framework, a protector, a breaker, a side part, and a board.
Tires, intended for passenger cars have high running characteristics( controllability and braking), low noise level and a high index of the maximum speed. Tires for passenger cars meet most often. Here is an example of marking-170/70 R14 84T.
Tires for SUVs 4×4 differ in the high index of loading capacity and the expressed tread pattern, which provides high possibility on off-road terrain. The marking of such tires has its features, for example, 8.20 R15.
Tires for minibusses, commercial cars are characterized by a high index of loading capacity, by simple tread pattern and resistance to wear. The reverse side of these advantages is the decrease in controllability and braking. In the marking of such tires, we can often see the letter C (e.g., 195/70 R14C).
Besides these tires, special rubber is used-truck tires (big lorries and buses) and motor-tires (mopeds, motorcycles).
Summer tires are used at a temperature from +5-7⁰ C and above. Such tires have less expressed tread pattern. When driving in hot weather summer tires harden and get cool. This is a perfect variant for fast driving, but only on qualitative pavings.
Winter tires are used at a temperature below -5⁰ C. They differ from summer models in a deeper protector and very often in the existence of thorns. When driving on a frost these tires get warm and become elastic. Thanks to these features winter tires are more reliable when coupling with the road, which increases the car controllability and reduces its braking distance.
Winter tires serve longer than summer ones, but they concede them to maximum speed.
There are three types of winter tires.
Tires intended for soft winter (the European types) have tread pattern, which reminds “fir-tree”. The next feature is a large number of cuts.
There are tires which are intended for hard winter (the Scandinavian types). Their tread pattern is formed by “rhombuses”, located in chessboard order. The characteristic feature of these tires is that the elements of the pattern are enough far from each other.
Thorns are intended for a better coupling with ice surface.
All-weather(universal) tires are applied in the temperature range from -5 up to +7⁰ C. Theoretically such tires can be used all the year round, which is very economic.
At the same time universal tires have worse quality than the specialized versions. Such tires provide the worst coupling with the road in comparison with winter tires and are heavier on the run than summer models.
All-weather tires can neither be used in freezing, nor in very hot weather.
IMPORTANT: Choosing universal tires, be convinced that they are suitable for moderate climate. Very often we can meet products, which are intended for hot climate with a small difference of air temperature in summer and in winter. Such all-weather tires are not suitable for moderate climate.
Judging by characteristics summer and winter tires are made of rubber, which has different chemical composition and are intended for the corresponding temperature range.
Winter tires become even softer at a temperature of +5⁰ C, and the summer ones become even more solid approaching 0⁰ C. Both significantly increase accident risk. For every season it’s necessary to have the corresponding set of tires-summer and winter. Don’t save on the safety!